A big spike in ocean freight rates, driven by strong demand for grain and coal vessels, is creating some turmoil in the dry bulk commodity market at present - as consumers and the trade scramble to cover forward business.
The leading sea freight index on London's Baltic Exchange closed higher for the third consecutive week last Friday.
Charter rates for the larger capesize and panamax vessel segments increased for five consecutive sessions to close at 2281, which is the highest level since September 2019.
Reports of a frenzy to secure panamax size - and smaller - vessels for the shipment of coal and grains in coming months pushed the main index up 16 per cent during the week to cap the biggest five-day gain in four weeks.
The Baltic Dry Index (BDI) tracks freight rates for capesize, panamax and supermax vessels ferrying dry bulk goods across the world's oceans.
It is not only a reflection of the cost of shipping raw materials from supplier to consumer, but also a real-time proxy of global demand for key commodities, such as grains, coal and iron ore.
The BDI is considered to be one of the most important global economic indicators, as it predicts future economic activity.
The panamax index, which accounts for 30 per cent of the BDI, is the best indicator of the cost of shipping grain.
It advanced 153 points, or 5.4 per cent, on Friday to close at 2975.
This was its highest level since September 2010 and followed surges of 211 points, or 8.9 per cent, on Wednesday and 239 points, or 9.3 per cent, on Thursday.
It was up almost 33 per cent for the week, which was the biggest weekly gain since the week ending June 19, 2020.
The average daily earnings for panamax vessels closed last week at an average of US$26,773, which was a rise of US$6595 compared to the previous Friday's close.
That equates to an increase of more than US$0.13 per tonne per day on a 50,000 tonne cargo.
And the increase would be more significant on the high-demand routes, such as into China.
Incidentally, this is more than 2.5-times the break-even income of about US$10,200 per day.
Agricultural exports have been the most significant commodities to boost the panamax and supramax segments in recent months.
US soybean exports had a solid start to the season, with shipments in the first four months of September to December hitting a record high of 39.6 million tonnes. China was the primary destination.
Dry bulk shipments accounted for 93.7 per cent of this total, and the balance of 6.3 per cent was shipped in containers.
This came on the back of very robust Brazilian soybean exports in 2020, which were up 12 per cent - or 83 million tonnes - compared to 2019.
And the rain-interrupted start to Brazil's 2020 soybean harvest has delayed exports, with a huge vessel line-up reducing the availability of panamax vessels in the spot market.
Total Chinese soybean imports from Brazil and the US in 2020 hit a record high of 95.3 million tonnes.
This is the equivalent of 1906 panamax cargoes of 50,000 tonnes, which is an increase of 296 consignments compared to 2019.
Most of the pressure on the global dry bulk shipping system stems from China, with its huge and growing appetite for imported commodities, such as soybeans, corn, wheat, coal and iron ore.
Ironically, dozens of vessels laden with Australian coal lay idle off the Chinese coast awaiting discharge due to the ongoing trade dispute between Beijing and Canberra.
While the iron ore trade between the two nations remains unchallenged at this stage - on the back of increasing demand from China's steel industry - the coal trade has been severely disrupted.
Total Australian coal exports fell by 94 million tonnes, or 6.1 per cent, in 2020 compared to the previous year.
This was primarily due to changes in China's import policy and, to a lesser degree, lower global demand due to the coronavirus pandemic.
The demand picture in the panamax segment of the market for the balance of 2021 hinges firmly on China's appetite in the second, third and fourth quarters of the year.
If Chinese consumers continue to buy agricultural commodities at a record pace from South and North America, Europe and - to a lesser degree - Australia, the availability of panamax vessels will stay tight for the balance of the year. And this will likely keep freight rates high.
Seaborne trade in the Pacific basin only accounts for 22 per cent of grain exports, but 58 per cent of global grain imports are in the Pacific - with South East Asia and the Far East the biggest demand centres.
Because the major grain export regions, such as Brazil, Argentina and the US Gulf, are in the Atlantic basin, the average distance that the bulk of grain vessels must travel is much longer than those out of Australian ports to the same destination.
The sizzling container market has also created some positives for dry bulk shipping globally.
Some commodities that are often transported in containers are temporarily being transported as bulk cargoes. This is due to "boxes" being expensive and hard to secure.
Some consumers who traditionally buy in containers are looking at bulk options due to extended container shipping delays, and the potential for substantial savings in their raw material costs.
This is great news for Australian grain exporters, especially when we have a sizable exportable surplus to clear.
Being an island nation nestled in the south-west corner of the Pacific Ocean does have its advantages.
The shorter distance to our key customers in Asia, relative to major competing origins, becomes positive.
Our global export reach is also extended in a rising freight market.
The pace of Australian exports has been solid during the past three months.
But it is behind where we need to be to clear all but the stocks required to meet traditional inelastic demand in the second half of the year.
Australia's competitiveness has improved dramatically because of the rise in sea freight rates.
This will be a critical competitive advantage as we go head-to-head with new crop Northern Hemisphere exporters from July onwards.
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